Volume 2 ; Issue 2 ; in Month : Apr-June (2018) Article No : 128
Noreen S, Aslam B, Alina Z, et al.

Abstract
Urinary tract infection is an inflammatory response of the urothelium to bacterial invasion that is usually associated with bacteriuria and pyuria. Urinary tract infections (UTI) are most familiar pathogenic infections that cause severe complications of urinary tract and difficult problems. The development of drug resistance especially to antibiotics which are used in treatment of infection is major problem. The main objective of this study was to evaluate antibacterial activity of medicinal plant extracts against pathogenic bacteria most commonly Escherichia coli (E. coli) involved in UTIs. Different bacterial strains of E. coli were provided by Institute of Microbiology in University of Agriculture Faisalabad. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was also performed for direct detection and identification of E. coli by targeting UID gene. After confirmation of E. coli antimicrobial sensitivity of various antibiotics as quinolones, aminoglycosides, cephalosporin and beta-lactam were tested by standard disc diffusion method. Results were recorded as by measuring diameter of zone of inhibition and analyzed by analysis of variance techniques (ANOVA). Five antibiotics ampicillin, imipenem, Ciprofloxacin, Norfloxacin and Nalidixic acid showed resistance pattern towards three strains. Clove, cinnamon, garlic aqueous and ethanolic extracts were prepared and tested to check their antibacterial efficacy against isolated E. coli. Clove and cinnamon extracts has showed best antibacterial activity against UTI strains as by their mean SE values (13.33 2.05 for clove and 11.33 0.5 for cinnamon). Ethanolic extract (10%) of clove with 27 mm, boiled extract (10%) of cinnamon and garlic with 16 mm and 14 mm diameters of zone of inhibition showed maximum inhibitory response. Combined effect of plant extracts 10% with antibiotics was also tested. In combined effect, resistance drugs ampicillin, Imipenem, Ciprofloxacin, Norfloxacin and Nalidixic acid showed susceptibility pattern as by increasing diameter of zone of inhibitions on three UTI strains. Hence it is concluded that combined effect is more (additive effect) than treated UTI alone with antibiotics. Various plant extracts can be used in combination with antibiotics as a treatment therapy in E. coli caused UTIs.

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